IndiaSim: An Agent-based Model for Estimating the Health and Economic Benefits of Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Diseases in India

Type: Article

The Question

Objectives: To estimate the epidemiological and financial benefits and the distributional consequences of policy interventions for coronary heart disease (CHD) and secondary Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) prevention in India.

Population:  Nationally representative sample population of one million.

Interventions: Policies of Universal PublicProvision (UPP) and Universal Public Finance (UPF) for scaling up availability of four drug therapies: aspirin only; aspirin with beta blocker; aspirin with beta blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI); and aspirin with beta blocker, ACEI, and statin.

Main outcome measures: Incremental health (deathsaverted) and financial (out-of-pocket medical expenditure averted, impoverishment averted, and value of financial risk protection) outcomes by wealth quintile, compared to baseline.


What we found

Scaling up the four interventions can potentially avert between 25.4 (24.4–26.4) and 119.1 (118.2–120.0) deaths per year per 100,000 persons aged 30 or older. Under UPF, out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditures increase by $1,283 ($1,085–$1,481) per 100,000 persons in the aspirin-only case, but decreases by $14,641 ($14,466–$14,816) per 100,000 when all four drugs are scaled up. The UPP lower bound scenario, which assumes no change in peoples provider choice, increases OOP expenditure by up to $105,587 ($105,369–$105,806) per 100,000 persons. The UPP upper bound case, in which people change their health care provider after the policy, averts OOP costs by up to $14,289 ($14,100–$­14,468) per 100,000. The burden averted relative to income is typically highest for the first and fourth income quintiles. The policies also provide a very high and progressive-with-income value of insurance, barring a few exceptions. Finally, UPF and UPP upper bound policies prevent as many as 131 patients per 100,000 people from falling into poverty due to OOP expenditure. 

Why it matters

Conditional upon provider choice behavior, the UPP and UPF policies may lead to a significant drop in both disease and financial burdens. The degree of averted burden varies across income groups, with higher relative benefits accruing to the poor.