Antibiotic Resistance

Graphic

Routine sub-therapeutic administration of antibiotics for growth promotion in animals has been shown to be at fault for increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance in animals – a trend that is likely to affect humans as well.  The use of antibiotics as growth promoters became widespread in the early 1950s after farmers noted that animal growth could be accelerated by adding antibiotics to their feed – a cheaper alternative to existing growth supplements at the time. With 

Graphic

The World Health Organization’s Global Tuberculosis Report 2013 provides comprehensive information on tuberculosis (TB) for 197 countries and territories that reported their data. This report highlights the growing problem of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), which has become a major public health concern in several countries, as particularly concerning.

Graphic

The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the US Department of Health and Human Services and the country’s medical research agency, is the world’s largest funder for medical research. The NIH website states that more than 80% of the agency’s budget is used to cover research costs at over 2,500 universities and research institutions.

Graphic

In their recently released report, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided a comprehensive review of antibiotic resistance in the US. In Section 1 (page 28) of the report, the CDC surveyed the literature on reports of resistance to specify the earliest date in which bacterial resistance to some of the key antibiotics were reported.

Graphic

Using estimates from a recent study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, this graphic shows the overall cost and per-case cost for each of the five major hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in the US. The five major HAIs identified by the study are: central line-associated bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, surgical site infections, C. difficile infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

Graphic

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 1990 to 2012, live poultry has been linked to 45 Salmonella outbreaks. The highest number of these outbreaks occurred in 2012, during which eight Salmonella outbreaks linked to live poultry were reported.

Normally found on human skin, Staphylococcus aureus can infect wounds and cause life-threatening conditions such as sepsis and pneumonia. Strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) fail to respond to commonly used antibiotics, making infections more expensive and difficult to treat.

The maps show the geographic spread of K. penumoniae isolates exhibiting resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (G3CRKP) and carbapenems (CRKP) between 1999 and 2010. Resistant phenotypes were more endemic in the Eastern part of the country, particularly the Middle and South Atlantic Census divisions.

The line graphs show the proportion of K. penumoniae isolates that exhibited resistance to carbapenems (CRKP) and third-generation cephalosporins (G3CRKP) across different patient settings between 1999 and 2010. Previous research has shown carbapenem-resistant infections primarily affect critically-ill or bed-ridden patients.