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Weekly Digest: Study maps the AMR research landscape in India; Resistant bacteria found in German seafood

Weekly Digest: Study maps the AMR research landscape in India; Resistant bacteria found in German seafood

Study maps the AMR research landscape in India. A new report by CDDEP researchers released last week maps and identifies the gaps in current antimicrobial resistance research in India. The study helps to determine future research priorities, in designing interventions, and was commissioned by the Department for Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, in partnership with Research Councils United Kingdom (RCUK). [Scoping Report on Antimicrobial Resistance in IndiaThe HinduHindustan Times]

Combination therapy for pneumonia in children. A study in JAMA Pediatrics suggests that combination antibiotic therapy may not be needed for community-acquired pneumonia in children. Even using just one of the two usually prescribed drugs is as effective in most cases and could reduce the use of azithromycin, which is commonly prescribed in children. [JAMA Pediatrics]

IPC interventions effective at all levels. A systematic review of twenty-nine studies in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions are effective at both national or subnational levels. The review also stated that the best quality evidence was from multimodal interventions and surveillance, monitoring, and feedback. The researchers highlight the need for improvements in the quality of evidence from low-income countries. [The Lancet Infectious Diseases]

Veterinary antibiotic sales decline in the UK: The UK–Veterinary Antibiotic Resistance and Sales Surveillance Report finds a decline in the use of veterinary antibiotics, below set targets and two years ahead of schedule. In 2016, the sales of third- and fourth- generation cephalosporins were reduced by twelve percent, fluoroquinolones by twenty-nine percent, and colistin reduced by 83 percent, below the targets recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). [UK-Veterinary Antibiotic Resistance and Sales Surveillance Report 2016]

Visit to emergency departments may increase risk of C. diff infections. A study in Open Forum Infectious Diseases confirms that antibiotic use is a risk factor for community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). It also reports that emergency departments might be an environmental source of CDIs and increase the risk of infection. The researchers highlight the need for further investigation on CDI transmission. [Open Forum Infectious Diseases]

CARB-X announces awards for development of MRSA vaccine, novel antibody to treat pseudomonas superbugs. CARB-X has announced an award of $168,000 to Integrated Biotherapeutics to develop a vaccine, IBT-V02, that prevents methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. It is the first multivalent vaccine that can potentially protect against three kinds of toxins secreted by S. aureus. In another announcement, CARB-X has awarded $4.55 million to Inhibrx to accelerate the development of a new antibody designed to prevent and treat infections caused by Pseudomonas. [CARB-X announcement 1, announcement 2]

High levels of resistance in pig farms in Portugal. A study in Emerging Infectious Diseases finds high prevalence of MCR-1 genes in E. coli samples in two pig farms in Portugal. Of the 108 colistin-resistant isolates, 90 were Escherichia coli, seventeen were Klebsiella pneumoniae, and one was Proteus mirabilis. The pigs had received colistin as metaphylaxis in their feed in the previous weeks and that suggests selective pressure. [Emerging Infectious Diseases]

Resistant bacteria found in German seafood. In a study in Eurosurveillance, researchers found carbapenemase-producing bacteria in samples of seafood from Germany. The researchers analyzed 160 seafood samples from twelve retail outlets in Berlin between December 2015 and August 2016 and found several resistant genes, and emphasized the need for further monitoring. [Eurosurveillance]

Livestock-associated MRSA in humans in Europe. A report in Eurosurveillance finds increased detection and geographical spread of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe. LA-MRSA was identified by seventeen of nineteen countries and most of the samples were reported from The Netherlands, Denmark, and Spain. [Eurosurveillance]

Highly virulent Klebsiella strains maybe more widespread. In three letters in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Chinese researchers report that the hypervirulent, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae that had caused a deadly pneumonia outbreak at a Chinese hospital last year may have emerged earlier and may be more widespread. The researchers emphasize the need for global surveillance. [The Lancet Infectious Diseases first letter, second letter, third letter, CIDRAP]

Uganda confirms second Marburg virus death. A second case of Marburg virus death has been confirmed in Uganda, involving the thirty-eight year old brother of the first Marburg case in the country. The health officials also reported two other suspected cases that have been isolated and are under observation. In response to the outbreak, Uganda’s Ministry of Health has dispatched a multi-sectoral team of experts to the affected districts of Kween and Kapchorwa, as well as the rest of the Sebei Sub-region. [Uganda health ministry statement]

More than 1,800 suspected plague cases in Madagascar. The plague outbreak in Madagascar has increased to more than 1800 suspected cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 120 deaths have been reported so far. [WHOCNN]

Oral flu vaccine tablet shows promise. An oral tablet H1 flu vaccine has shown similar protection as the injectable quadrivalent flu vaccine in a Phase-2 human trial, along with favorable safety and tolerability profiles. In the randomized, double-blind study, the oral tablet vaccine showed a thirty-nine percent reduction in disease, compared with twenty-seven percent for the quadrivalent vaccine. [Vaxart press release, CIDRAP]

Global report shows significant improvement immunization coverage in India. The integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) reports improvements in India’s immunization coverage with respect to measles, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3), and rotavirus vaccines. India had launched Mission Indradhanush in December 2014 to ensure full immunization coverage of all children across the country. [Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea monitoring data, 2017 Pneumonia & Diarrhea Progress Report, Indian Express]

More than 70 percent of women with Zika may not have symptoms. A study in Eurosurveillance finds that 77 percent of pregnant women infected with Zika may be symptom-free, with wide variations among different populations. The study included more than 3,000 girls and women between the ages of fourteen and forty-eight from French Guiana and France who were pregnant between February and June 2016. While nineteen percent of them had the infection, twenty-three percent reported at least one symptom. The rate of symptomatic infections varied from twenty percent to twenty-eight percent in younger women and girls and women who were thirty and older, respectively. [Eurosurveillance]

 

Image courtesy: DBT India website