OFFICES IN Washington D.C. & New Delhi

The Center For Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy

Weekly digest (WAAW2017 round-up): New guidelines for preventing carbapenem-resistant infections; Experiments on E. Coli in space; CDDEP blog on a global plan to cut antimicrobial use in animals

Weekly digest (WAAW2017 round-up): New guidelines for preventing carbapenem-resistant infections; Experiments on E. Coli in space; CDDEP blog on a global plan to cut antimicrobial use in animals

CDDEP blog: A global plan to cut antimicrobial use in animals. For the World Antibiotic Awareness Week 2017, CDDEP visiting scholar Thomas Van Boeckel writes about the health and environmental costs of global food animal production. He notes that the loss of antimicrobial efficacy is not reflected in the price consumers pay and makes a strong case for introducing a user fee on veterinary use of antibiotics and other interventions that would result in the reduction of antibiotic consumption in food animals. [CDDEP blog]

Establishing AMR reference laboratory and surveillance in Vietnam. Vietnam was one of the first countries in the Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) project to conduct an AMR situational analysis in 2010 and subsequently launch a National Action Plan (NAP) in 2013. GARP Vietnam, together with other partners, has supported the implementation of the NAP with a focus on building the AMR surveillance for antibiotic use and resistance, and an antibiotic stewardship program. A correspondence in The Lancet Global Health discusses the efforts to establish a nationwide hospital-surveillance network and reference laboratory in Vietnam. [The Lancet Global Health]

Disease Control Priorities launches volume on Major Infectious Diseases. Findings from the latest volume of the Disease Control Priorities, 3rd Edition (DCP3) indicate that the largest burden of infectious diseases is on the global poor. They emphasize the need for a continued focus on interventions to combat infectious diseases and the implementation of standardized prevention and treatment protocols. CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan is a DCP3 series editor. [Disease Control Priorities, 3rd Edition]

New guidelines for preventing carbapenem-resistant infections. The World Health Organization (WHO) has released the first-ever global guidelines for preventing and controlling carbapenem-resistant bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in health care settings. Separately, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has provided guidance on prevention of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections in hospital settings. [WHO guidelinesECDC guidance]

Experiments on E. Coli in space. A novel experiment by NASA will test how bacteria respond to stress in spaceflight environment. Bacterial specimens were launched to the ISS on Orbital ATK’s Cygnus cargo spacecraft. The effects of microgravity on E. coli growth and the effect of antibiotics will be examined. This will help determine the minimum dose of antibiotics needed to protect astronauts’ health and may lead to the development of more effective antibiotics. [NASA release]

Good antibiotic management can halve multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals. A study in The Lancet Infectious Diseases finds that effective management of antibiotics can reduce the number of multidrug-resistant infections in hospitalized patients by half. The evidence supports the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs in clinical settings. [The Lancet Infectious Diseases]

Nearly two-thirds of all US hospitals have antibiotic stewardship programs. According to a progress report by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 64 percent of all US hospitals have a standardized antibiotic stewardship program. The report notes a decline in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infections, as well as a reduction in inpatient antimicrobial use in Veterans Health Administration medical centers. [HHS progress report]

US FDA launches a tracker to monitor AMR. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched an interactive tool to track antibiotic resistance genes called the Resistome Tracker. The tool is available to the public and provides visualizations by antibiotic drug class, compares resistance genes across different sources, and maps resistance genes to geographic region. [FDA Resistome Tracker, FDA release]

Ceftriaxone-resistant gonorrhea reported in Canada. A study in Emerging Infectious Diseases reports the occurrence of a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhea strain in a Canadian patient. Ceftriaxone is one of the last remaining treatments available for gonorrhea. Global health experts have sounded the alarm for multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea. [Emerging Infectious Diseases]

Global health experts clash over drug-resistant malaria threat. A letter in The Lancet Infectious Diseases had triggered concern over the need for stronger measures to combat drug-resistant malaria. In its response, the World Health Organization (WHO) cited the good impact of the current malaria elimination efforts. A follow-up report in The BMJ cites researchers advocating with WHO for declaring drug-resistant malaria as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). [CIDRAP, The BMJ report, Lancet Infectious Disease letter, WHO Q and A]

Zika maybe affecting the poorer sections of society the most. A study in mBIO reports that the Zika outbreak in Salvador in Brazil in 2015-16 affected a large part of the population, with poorer neighborhoods being hit the most. The findings may help identify target populations for vaccination and other interventions. [mBIO]

Have you seen the Superbug Story yet? Watch this animated  video that explains how bacteria develop resistance and turn  into superbugs.