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Weekly Digest: World Health Organization releases AMR Costing and Budgeting Tool; One Health landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa

World Health Organization releases AMR Costing and Budgeting Tool. The World Health Organization recently released a user-friendly tool and user guide to assist countries in calculating and visualizing costs related to implementing their national action plan on antimicrobial resistance (NAP-AMR). The tool can be adapted to different contexts and can be filled using a modular approach, where cost calculations for various sectors and departments can be consolidated into one national costed plan. [WHO]

Multidrug-resistant infections related to interhospital transfers. Researchers in Finland found high rates of travel-acquired multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) among patients transferred from hospitals abroad. A third of the patients were colonized by one or more MDR strains, with the most common one being extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Geographical region, ICU treatment, and antibiotic use abroad were all independent risk factors for MDR carriage. [Eurosurveillance]

Resistance to WHO-recommended empirical antibiotics in neonatal sepsis. Findings from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis suggest high levels of resistance towards WHO-recommended empirical antibiotics among Gram-negative bacteria that increasingly predominate neonatal sepsis. The pooled prevalence of neonatal sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 88 studies in Africa and Asia was 60%, with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ranging from 42% to 84%. [PLoS Med]

Information on death prevention potential linked to increased confidence in COVID-19 vaccines. Researchers in Canada assessed communication strategies to mitigate COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Among the 2556 adults surveyed, those informed of vaccines’ potential to prevent death displayed more confidence in vaccine efficacy than those informed of the vaccines’ potential to prevent symptomatic transmission. Age and gender were important moderators of the death prevention treatment on intention to vaccinate. [JAMA Network]

Housing insecurity is associated with psychological distress and lower self-rated health. Among 1218 American adults surveyed in November 2020, 12% reported housing insecurity. Of those, more than one-third reported having little to no confidence in their ability to make their next housing payment. Housing insecurity was higher for those who rented their homes, those of non-Hispanic Black race, and those who earned under $35,000 in 2019, among other categories. Individuals experiencing housing insecurity reported higher distress and lower self-rated health. [JAMA Network]

Private and public sector interaction can help effectively control Tuberculosis in India. A recent study estimated the cost-effectiveness of scaling up India’s ‘Public-Private Interface Agency’ (PPIA) initiative operations for tuberculosis (TB) control. Using cost data from two major cities in India, the findings show that scaling up private sector engagement would be cost-effective in both settings. However, in settings with low drug resistance burden, the study interventions should focus on improving treatment outcomes rather than diagnosis. [BMJ Global Health]

Combining stool and stories; a bio-social exploration of AMRA longitudinal study including 64 health students traveling to India combined transdisciplinary research methods to obtain a bio-social understanding of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Microbiological analysis of stool samples revealed a considerable increase in AMR attributed to traveling. However, interviews with a sample of the participants indicated that most travelers believed AMR is a clinical issue and or related to individual antibiotic use rather than to travel. [BMC Infectious Diseases]

Environmental Health can contribute to AMR prevention in low- and middle-income countries. While AMR prevention has primarily focused on antimicrobial stewardship, improved Environmental Health factors focusing on preventative health can minimize growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in lower-middle-income countries with less developed stewardship programs. Key factors include water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety. [Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine]

One Health landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa. A recent review of One Health initiatives in Sub-Saharan highlighted an imbalance in stakeholder representation which contributes to buying-in hesitancy for those outside the main networks. Additionally, the review emphasizes the importance of national roadmaps for One Health implementation and institutionalization and securement of local funding. [One Health]

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