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CDDEP in the News


Hib vaccine is linked to better health in children in India: Study.

The Quint Fit- June 13, 2019. Co-author and CDDEP director, Ramanan Laxminarayan said, “Hib vaccination is a critical component of the pentavalent vaccine, which was introduced in 2011. Although we tend to focus on short term consequences of immunization, this study shows that the effect of Hib vaccination on schooling and cognitive development can be significant. Denying children vaccines is effectively denying them access to these benefits that persist through their lives.”


Dangerous meat.

Governance Now- June 3, 2019. “A CDDEP report says the true extent of the spread of AMR from meat animals in India hasn’t been scoped, but mentions a telling fact: only one company produces benzathine penicillin for human use, whereas six make it for veterinary use. ‘It’s clear,’ says Dr. Isabel Frost, ‘that the use of antibiotics in animal rearing is contributing to the emergence and spread of highly resistant disease-causing bacteria.'”


Tourists are spreading superbugs across international borders, report warns. 

The Telegraph- May 30, 2019. “The report, published by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), found that tourists are contributing to the spread of AMR across international borders – with as many as 88 percent of unwell tourists returning to the UK from India infected with drug resistant bacteria.”


The politics of antibiotics- Interview with Ramanan Laxminarayan.

Books & Ideas- May 30, 2019. “The growing resistance to antibiotics potentially threatens the future of mankind. Ramanan Laxminarayan suggests that this major political challenge requires as much international cooperation as the fight against global warming does.”


New antibiotics are urgently needed, but economics stand in the way.

MedCity News- May 21, 2019. “There needs to be a more rational reimbursement model with a willingness to pay more in cases when a patient is going to die without an antibiotic.” –CDDEP director Ramanan Laxminarayan on antibiotic reimbursement.


India & Candida Auris: The deadly infection breeding in hospitals.

The Quint Fit-May 20, 2019. “FIT spoke to three experts, Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) in Washington, D.C., Dr. Isabel Frost, fellow at CDDEP, and Dr Sumit Ray, Chairperson, Critical Care Medicine, to understand the peculiar problem that it creates for a country like India; where the healthcare infrastructure is battling to even recognise AMR as a real threat.”


Healthcare is still unaffordable.

Decan Hearald- May 6, 2019. “A recent report by the US-based Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) has made a shocking revelation. Terminally ill patients suffering from treatable diseases in India have no access to life saving drugs or even to doctors who know how to administer them.  “Lack of access to antibiotics kills more people currently than do antibiotic resistance,” says director Ramanan Laxminarayan.”


1 million species face extinction: how it impacts human health.

The Quint Fit- May 5, 2019. “Speaking to FIT, Prof Ramanan Laxminarayan of Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) had said: We forget that we are all interlinked. Most diseases first emerge in animals. It is only after they’ve gone through them that they travel to humans. Ebola first emerged in Gorillas. Unless we learn from our mistakes, we stop destroying their habitat, these viruses will keep emerging.”


How to save $45 billion on health care costs each year.

Scientific American- May 3, 2019. “Each time an antibiotic is misused and a new strain of bacteria evolves with an immunity to that antibiotic, scientists must develop a different antibiotic to treat the new infection caused by the new bacteria. Then they must distribute the newly developed antibiotic to hospitals, by which time patients could have gotten sick and died. It’s a race to evolve, essentially. A race against nature. And we’re going to lose. ‘This is clearly not a game that can be sustained, or one that we can win by simply innovating to stay ahead,’ said Laxminarayan. ‘We’ve got to slow the pace of coevolution down.’”


Antibiotic resistance is now as big a threat as climate change.

The Quint Fit- April 29, 2019. “As the recent report by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy highlights, the majority of the world’s annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in LMICs, where the mortality burden from treatable bacterial infections far exceeds the estimated annual 700,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections.”


One-third of overseas travelers might come back with drug resistant bacteria, research shows, but here’s why you shouldn’t worry.

Bustle- April 22, 2019.  “We took antibiotics for granted. We thought that we could use them like sugar pills, that they were safe and that resistance was just something that biologists worried about that you’d never actually see in real life,’ Ramanan Laxminarayan, an economist and a senior research scholar at Princeton University, told 60 Minutes.”


India doctor shortage drives rise in superbugs, report warns.

The Telegraph- April 23, 2019. “The research, published by the Centre For Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) shows there is just one doctor for every 10,189 people in the country, nowhere near the World Health Organization’s recommendation of one doctor per 1,000 inhabitants. In order to satisfy its public health requirements, India needs to hire a further 600,000 doctors, the report says. ‘Many of the doctors and nurses trained in India do not stay here,’ said Dr. Isabel Frost, a fellow at CDDEP and one of the authors of the report.


Could antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” become a bigger killer than cancer?

60 Minutes- April 21, 2019. “Ramanan Laxminarayan is an economist and a senior research scholar at Princeton University. He’s been tracking the rise of superbugs for nearly 20 years. He says what happened to Ricci was more than just bad luck, it was the result of our misuse of antibiotics. Ramanan Laxminarayan: ‘We took antibiotics for granted. We thought that we could use them like sugar pills, that they were safe and that resistance was just something that biologists worried about that you’d never actually see in real life.’”


Drug-resistant fungi are a threat to modern medicine.

Hindustan Times- April 19, 2019. “To prevent the outbreak of deadly infections such as Candida auris, hospital infection control must be taken seriously. Unlike other fungi that rarely transmit between humans, C. auris can be passed from patient to patient in a hospital. This is because of its unusual ability to last for long periods of time on hospital surfaces, such as bed rails and door handles.”


New metric aims to simplify how global resistance is measured.

CIDRAP- April 18, 2019. “A new method for measuring and tracking antibiotic resistance and comparing the effectiveness of antibiotics by country shows a clear distinction between high- and low-income countries. In a study published in BMJ Global Health, researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) calculated the Drug Resistance Index (DRI)—which combines measurements of antibiotic consumption and resistance across several disease-causing pathogens—for 41 countries. The results showed that use and resistance rates were highly variable across countries but that DRIs were generally correlated with income levels, with high-income countries such as Sweden, Canada, and Norway having the lowest DRIs and India, Thailand, and Ecuador the highest.”


Report highlights lack of access to antibiotics.

CIDRAP- April 17, 2019. “Excessive, inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered to be the most significant driver of antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, global efforts have been launched to promote antibiotic stewardship and the reduction of unnecessary use of these life-saving drugs. But a new report from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) suggests limited access to antibiotics in many parts of the world, particularly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), is an overlooked and under-appreciated problem. The report argues that a combination of factors—from weak, underfunded health systems to unreliable supply chains and high out-of-pocket costs—create barriers to access that prevent millions of people from receiving the antibiotics they need.”


Six reasons why antibiotics access remains a challenge in Uganda.

Down to Earth- April 17, 2019. “While antibiotic resistance has become a major health risk in the world today, over 5.7 million people die every year due to lack of access to antibiotics. A recent report highlights how a majority of these avoidable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Focusing on Uganda, the report highlights six distinct reasons why low-income countries are unable to avoid these deaths.”


Limited access to antibiotics a major problem for many countries around the world.

Consumer Affairs- April 16, 2019. “While many researchers have explored how overusing antibiotics can be dangerous, a new study looked at the ways a lack of supplies can also be detrimental. According to researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policy, countries that have limited access to antibiotics are seeing people die from very treatable diseases and infections.”


CDDEP researchers label lack of antibiotics access major health hurdle worldwide. 

Homeland Preparedness News- April 15, 2019. “A recent report from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) lays out present problems in global access to antibiotics.”


India facing shortage of 600,000 doctors, 2 million nurses: study.

Livemint- April 14, 2019. “Even when antibiotics are available, patients are often unable to afford them. High out-of-pocket medical costs to the patient are compounded by limited government spending for health services, according to the report by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) in the US. In India, 65% of health expenditure is out-of-pocket, and such expenditures push some 57 million people into poverty each year.”


FT Health: The struggle for women’s rights.

Financial Times Health- April 12, 2019. Another downside to the overuse of antibiotics is that many patients do not get the drugs they need. Most of the world’s annual 5.7m antibiotic-treatable deaths are in poorer countries. Government and industry need to work together to develop new antimicrobials. A new paper argues for economic incentives to encourage development, decoupling profits from volumes sold. (CDDEP, Stat, Science)”


India’s Medical Professional Shortage. 

YouTube/ Bloomberg Quint- April 15, 2019. “India has shortage of an estimated 6,00,000 doctors and 2 million nurses, according to a study by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy.”


Government subsidies could be key to containing hospital-born infections.

Princeton University- April 3, 2019. “Co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan, a senior research scholar at the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) who studies antibiotic resistance, said that incentivizing infection control would reduce infections within a given region by motivating individual hospitals to strengthen their own preventive measures. Those single measures would coalesce into lower infection rates for the area as a whole.”


Matching subsidies for infection control effective at lowering HAI levels.

Beckers Hopsital Review- March 12, 2019. “Researchers from Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, D.C., and Princeton (N.J.) University argue that since patients can carry infections from one facility to another, infection control practices at one healthcare facility can affect other facilities. Thus, there is a need for regional infection control strategy.”


India’s integrated child development program increases educational attainment. February 25, 2019. “In a new study funded by Grand Challenges Canada through the Saving Brains project, researchers at CDDEP and the University of Pennsylvania evaluated the long-term impact of ICDS on schooling attainment of adolescents and adults in India.”


‘Make no mistake, a flu pandemic is inevitable’: Economist urges governments to stockpile antibiotics ready for an outbreak as they will fight deadly secondary bacteria infections.

Daily mail- February 15, 2019.Although antibiotics are ineffective against the viruses that cause flu, Ramanan Laxminarayan warns it is the secondary bacterial infections – such as pneumonia – that are most deadly.” 


Study estimates value of investing in antibiotic to reduce repercussion in influenza pandemic.

News Medical- February 13, 2019. “In a new study published in the journal Health Economics, researchers at CDDEP, the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, and Wageningen University in the Netherlands developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.”


Are our milk and poultry products safe for consumption?

Kashmir Reader- January 12, 2019. “According to Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, a noted poultry expert, who has been the director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington DC and New Delhi. 12 out of the 18 poultry farms ie (67% farms) in India reported the use of antimicrobials as growth boosters. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, antibiotics commonly used to treat cholera, malaria, respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans, were the most commonly used of these.”


Dr. Eili Klein discusses medical research and the threat of ‘superbugs’.

CGTN America- January 4, 2019


Expert spotlight: 5 questions with Ramanan Laxminarayan.

Antibiotic Resistance Action Center- December 12, 2018. “In late March, CDDEP and its colleagues published a new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), Global increase and geographic convergence in antibiotic consumption between 2000 and 2015, that highlights how global consumption of antibiotics is skyrocketing, further driving antibiotic resistance. We interviewed Dr. Laxminarayan to get his take on their latest report and what the world can do to tackle antibiotic resistance.”


Antibiotic resistance: 5 simple tips to help prevent or reduce the spread of drug-resistant infections.

Times Now News- November 19, 2018. “A new report by researchers at the Centre for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy (CDDEP) warned that antibiotic-resistant infections are growing at an alarming rate in India, killing over 58,000 children every year.”


Deadly superbugs kill more Indians than people from any other country, finds study.

India Times- November 18, 2018. According to the study, conducted by researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) among others, the overall mortality rate due to drug-resistant bacteria in India was 13% in 2015.


Effective antibiotic therapies declining.

Times of India- November 17, 2018. Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of CDDEP in Washington DC, said infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are associated with higher mortality rates compared to those caused by Gram-positive bacteria, with rates of 17.7 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively.


Study shows declining efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent SSIs following colorectal surgery.

Healio, Infectious Disease News- November 15, 2018. “There has been concern that drug resistance would make surgeries and transplants difficult to perform because of the greater risk of untreatable, drug-resistant infections,” Ramanan Laxminarayan, PhD, director and founder of the Center for Disease, Dynamics, Economics & Policy and senior research scholar at Princeton University, told Infectious Disease News.”


Antibiotic awareness week- Talk vs. action?

American Council on Science and Health- November 12, 2018. “In the NAS workshop report, Ramanan Laxminarayan was quoted.  He “also pointed out that the way to think about AMR’s consequences on human health needs to go beyond only focusing on the death tolls from drug-resistant pathogens. He highlighted that AMR deeply affects care-seeking behaviors. He described a scenario in which an elderly patient might forgo a hip replacement surgery because of the higher associated risk of a postoperative infection and has to live with a bad hip for several more years. He reiterated that behavioral adaptations in response to not having access to effective antibiotics or any antibiotics at all are likely to be significant, and he urged the audience to think about these often-overlooked ramifications.”


Geographic distribution of antibiotics after market introduction.

European Pharmaceutical Review-October 17, 2018. “According to a new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) with colleagues at the University of Oslo, and other organizations, between 1999 and 2014, only 25 new antibiotics representing nine different antibiotic classes entered the global market.” “According to Ramanan LaxminarayanCDDEP’s Director, “prior to this study, little was known about the geographic distribution and availability of antibiotics following market introduction. We found that many new antibiotics fail to go beyond a few countries and are therefore not available in many countries where the need is greatest.”’


Microbiology culture market estimated to attain revenues worth US $7.5 bn by 2023.

Industry Research News- September 25, 2018. “According to the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), a U.S.-based independent research body, the demand for antibiotics will soar to 105.600 tons by 2030, to cater to the healthcare needs of about 8.5 bn people. From infection control to better agricultural productivity to improving industrial processes, the demand for antibiotics is soaring in a myriad of application areas.”


How Swachh Bharat can enhance nutrition, immunity of children.

Hindustan Times- September 25, 2018. “In India, antibiotics overuse is often because it is used to treat diarrhea and upper respiratory tract infections, both of which can be reduced by improving sanitation, providing clean water, adopting personal hygiene and getting vaccinated,” said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan from the Princeton Environmental Institute.”


Antimicrobial resistance can’t be tackled by just reducing antibiotics consumption.

Great Lakes Ledger- September 9, 2018. “The research, carried out by researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), demonstrated that improved governance and infrastructure are strongly linked to lower levels of AMR (Antimicrobial Resistance).”


How countries can curb antibiotic resistance.

The Economic Times- September 9, 2018. “The study, led by researchers from the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), here, showed that better infrastructure and better governance were significantly associated with lower measures of antimicrobial resistance.”


Not just antibiotic abuse, corruption, low health spend also fuel superbugs.

Hindustan Times- September 5, 2018. ‘Lowering of antibiotic consumption is not sufficient because the spread of resistant strains and resistance genes are the dominant contributing factor. Providing sanitation, clean water and good governance, increasing public health expenditure and better regulating the private health sector are all necessary to reduce antimicrobial resistance,’ said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan.


FDA issues warning on common antibiotic class.

Medi Bulletin- August 30, 2018. “According to a study published by Ramanan Laxminarayan et al. titled Antibiotic Resistance in India: Drivers and Opportunities for Action, fluoroquinolones consumption is high and increasing in India. In 2010, India was the world’s largest consumer of antibiotics for human health. The study also found resistance to fluoroquinolones among invasive Salmonella typhi isolates in India increased from 8% in 2008 to 28% in 2014. Salmonella typhi is the causative organism for typhoid.”


India is rolling out a health-care plan for half a billion people. But are there enough doctors?

The Washington Post- August 14, 2018. The private sector expects huge profits when investing in health care, said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, and the government’s budget constraints simply won’t be able to match their expectations. “The private sector wants more money than the government wants to spend,” he said.


Just Rs 147 to help protect a kid from diseases in India.

Hindustan Times- August 7, 2018. “‘There’s been a four-fold increase in the immunization budget over the last four years, yet no proper economic costing study has been done. This study is significant because with the addition of more life-saving vaccines, as it should happen, the budget will go up further,’ said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan from Princeton University.”


The startups waging war against superbugs.

The Spokesman-Review- July 1, 2018. “‘The science is as good as anywhere else,’ said Ramanan Laxminarayan, a professor at Princeton University and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, based in Washington and New Delhi. ‘On a per-dollar basis, I think the chance of a new antibiotic discovery is as great or higher in India as anywhere.’”


Drug resistance takes devastating toll on families in India.

National Post- June 26, 2018. “Carbapenem resistance was unheard of as recently as the late 1990s. It has now become widespread in South Asia, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy and a leading expert.”


Call to widen pneumonia vaccine cover.

The Telegraph India- June 14, 2018. “A study published last month by the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) had estimated that the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines would cost $240 million (Rs 1,620 crore), more than double the Rs 700 crore India spent on immunization in 2014-15.”


Why not take a risk?’ attitude is impeding efforts to stem rise in antibiotic-resistant infections.

Minnpost- June 11, 2018. “The problem is that patients, but more surprisingly clinicians, are not fully recognizing the potential harms from antibiotic use,” said Eili Klein, one of the study’s authors and a mathematical ecologist and epidemiologist at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), in a released statement. “Despite the fact that approximately 20% of patients can get some sort of side effect, this does not seem to be as important a factor in decision-making as one would expect.”


Perception that antibiotics are harmless is widespread.

EuerkAlert- May 31, 2018. “The problem is that patients, but more surprisingly clinicians, are not fully recognizing the potential harms from antibiotic use”, said Dr. Klein of CDDEP. “Despite the fact that approximately 20% of patients can get some sort of side effect, this does not seem to be as important a factor in decision-making as one would expect.”


Climate change: a possible cause behind the Nipah outbreak.

The Quint- May 23, 2018. ‘We forget that we are all interlinked. Most diseases first emerge in animals. It is only after they’ve gone through them that they travel to humans. Ebola first emerged in Gorillas. Unless we learn from our mistakes, we stop destroying their habitat these viruses will keep emerging.’ -Prof Ramanan Laxminarayan, CDDEP.

The catch-22 of mass-prescribing antibiotics.

Wired- May 10, 2018. “I am not saying this kind of use has no place at all; it may have a role for some populations and for some period of time,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, the founder of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy and a prominent researcher into developing-world antibiotic policy. “But we have to also be working on water, sanitation, nutrition. This can be a stopgap, but it cannot be an endless strategy for saving children’s lives.”


Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in children across the US: After 2008, a downward trend reported.

Outbreak News Today- May 3, 2018. “In the first national study of the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in children across the US,researchers from Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, & Policy (CDDEP) in Washington, DC and Rush University in Chicago, IL examined national and regional trends of antibiotic resistance in clinical specimens over a 13-year period.”


Fresh food samples found to be resistant to antibiotics: new study reveals.

Hungry Forever- April 27, 2018. “After studies conducted by Indian researchers from the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) found a high level of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in chicken, it has recently been found that fresh food samples contain bacteria that is resistant to even the most powerful antibiotic.”


Giving at-risk children pre-emptive antibiotics reduces deaths.

International Journal of Science- April 25, 2018. ‘This antibiotics strategy comes at a cost, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in Washington DC. If resistance develops against azithromycin, diseases treated by the drug, including gonorrhea, would become harder to combat.’


Antibiotic resistance is becoming a massive problem.

Longevity Live- April 20, 2018. “The study, which analyzed human antibiotic consumption in 76 countries, is the most comprehensive assessment of global trends to date. Researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), Princeton University, ETH Zurich and the University of Antwerp conducted the study, which found that antibiotic consumption rates increased worldwide from 11.3 to 15.7 defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day between 2000 and 2015.”


Antibiotics use in India has risen by 65% in the last 15 years.

Free Press Journal- April 8, 2018. “Worryingly, use of third-generation antibiotics such as cephalosporins and linezolid’s used to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased dramatically in India since 2000, reports the study, done by CDDEP, Princeton University, ETH Zurich and the University of Antwerp.”


Global antibiotic use rises, fueled by economic growth.

Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy- March 26, 2018. “If things continue at the same rate they’re going, without any sort of deviation, things are just going to get worse,” study co-author Eili Klein, PhD, a professor in the department of emergency medicine at Johns Hopkins University and fellow at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), told CIDRAP News.


Antibiotic shortage alert on superbugs.

The Telegraph India- February 8, 2018. “The researchers at the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), a Washington DC and New Delhi-based health think tank, have also predicted that over three-fourths of E. coli will be 3GC resistant and all of K pneumonia will be carbapenem-resistant by 2030.”