CDDEP in the News
CDDEP leads the largest contact tracing study to date, investigating COVID-19 transmission patterns in India
In the largest contact tracing study to date published in Science, a team of researchers from CDDEP, Princeton, University of California, Berkeley, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in collaboration with the Government of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, investigated COVID-19 epidemiology in India, giving a much needed insight onto COVID-19 transmission in low resource settings. The study was highlighted in several major news outlets:
Largest study of COVID-19 transmission highlights essential role of super-spreaders
Los Angeles Times – “Super-spreading events are the rule rather than the exception”, Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of CDDEP discussed one of the major findings of the CDDEP led and largest contact tracing study to date, investigating COVID-19 epidemiology in two Indian states.
Huge Study of Coronavirus Cases in India Offers Some Surprises to Scientists
The New York Times – “An overwhelming majority of coronavirus cases globally have occurred in resource-poor countries. It still surprises me that it took until this point for a lot of data to come out of a low- or middle-income country about the epidemiology of Covid”, Dr. Joseph Lewnard, Epidemiologist at University of California, Berkeley, and senior author of the study led by CDDEP director Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Kids And Superspreaders Are Driving COVID-19 Cases In India, Huge Study Finds
NPR – What’s been unclear is how much kids contribute to spreading COVID-19 to the rest of the community. “What we found in our study is that children were actually quite important,” says Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of CDDEP, while elaborating on the role that children have in COVID-19 disease transmission.
Big contact-tracing study shows role of kids and superspreaders in coronavirus pandemic
CNN – “This is the largest contact-tracing study in the world, and by a long shot,” Dr. Laxminarayan said. “We were surprised to find that just 8% of the infected primary cases were responsible for 60% of the contacts that were infected,” he said. “That’s a hugely disproportionate effect. Superspreading has been suspected, but not really documented.”
The study is highlighted in The Economist coronavirus special edition.
The Economist – “Our data journalists dig into statistics that show how the coronavirus is passed on by a few super-spreaders— 10% of people cause 60% of infections.”
What super-spreading events teach us about protecting ourselves from COVID-19. Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan discusses the implications of the study’s findings in an interview with TIME.
Thinking Foward – Public Health. In one of the monthly series talks from Princeton University, Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan discusses the major public health efforts in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu provinces in India, which enabled the tracing of 85,000 COVID-19 index cases and their 757,000 contacts, in one of the largest contact- tracing studies to date. The talk also highlights one of the important and surprising findings from the study implying that COVID-19 transmission was greater among groups of same-age categories.
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states. Listen to Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan discuss the study in one of the Global Pervasive Computational Epidemiology (GPCE) Series talks.
Are children the biggest Covid-19 spreaders? The largest contact tracing study to date emphasizes the huge role that superspreading events play on diseases transmission; while 71% of the infected persons may not end up infecting others, a small percentage of those infected could be responsible for up to 60% of the infections. Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of CDDEP, elaborates on these findings in ‘Science in Action’ program at BBC News.
Dr Ramanan Laxminarayan of CDDEP on contact tracing study of COVID-19 The largest contact tracing study in the world, based on data collected by tens of thousands of contact tracers in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu has thrown up lesser known findings that can help us understand the way Covid 19 spreads in India and across the world.
Check the study’s Altmetrics here
India under lockdown: What costs and benefits?
France 24- April 20, 2020. François Picard speaks with Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, and health journalist Vidya Krishnan, author of the upcoming book “Phantom Plague: The Untold Story of How Tuberculosis Shaped our History”.
Coronavirus: India needs to proactively identify hotspots to stop millions from getting infected, says director of CDDEP.
CNBC TV18- April 9, 2020. Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, Director of Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (DDEP) talks about how India could deal with COVID-19.
India fights COVID-19.
India Today- April 4, 2020. Dr Geetanjali Kapoor, a research fellow at CDDEP suggest we need to ramp up and be sure we have enough facilities to accommodate hospitalisation if required.
Coronavirus in India: More Cases Likely Out There, Says Expert.
The Quint Fit- April 3, 2020. FIT spoke to Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, Director of Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) who explained to us how it is very likely that the number of cases in India are actually more than the ones reported so far.
Coronavirus: How many cases will India see? Here’s one expert’s best-case prediction.
India Today- March 21, 2020. Applying mathematical models used in the US or UK to India points to a possible 300 million (30 crore) cases, according to Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP).
“If PM believed the official data he wouldn’t have drawn a World War analogy”- Ramanan Laxminarayan.
MOJO Story- March 21, 2020. This is the full interview with Ramanan Laxminarayan, a lecturer at Princeton University, on the COVID crisis in India. His research projection is that India should ready itself for 300-500 million cases by July end without drastic interventions and possibly between 1 and 2 million fatalities.
‘A Battle To Save The Elderly’: Ramanan Laxminarayan.
NDTV- March 20, 2020. Dr Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, spoke to NDTV and warned that India could face a larger number of cases of COVID-19 or the Novel Coronavirus.
‘India must prepare for a tsunami of coronavirus cases.’
BBC News- March 19, 2020. Dr Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy has warned that India could soon be dealing with a “tsunami” of coronavirus cases.
India Could Be Next Coronavirus Hotspot, in Worst Case up to 60% Could Be Infected’ | Karan Thapar.
The Wire- March 18, 2020. In an exclusive 50-minute interview to Karan Thapar for The Wire, Dr Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Washington-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy and lecturer at Princeton University, said that he found it hard to believe the Health Ministry’s official figure.
Time will reveal the value of India’s lockdown.
Hindustan Times- April 24, 2020. By Ramanan Laxminarayan. Viruses spread rather unpredictably- and the scenario we were modeling was rather straightforward, yet terrifying- the spread of a new coronavirus through a completely susceptible population.
By September, India could have 111 crore SARS-CoV-2 cases: CDDEP.
The Hindu Business Line- April 23, 2020. *A statement from CDDEP was issued regarding the following publication and the corrections have been initiated.
The US-based Centre for Disease, Dynamics and Economic Policy (CDDEP), has in its report dated April 20 said India’s total SARS-COV-2 infections up to September could be as high as 111 crore, even with “hard lockdown, continued social distancing and isolation of cases”. Even this number is the average of the expected range between 55-138 crore.
Infect Everyone: How Herd Immunity Could Work for Poor Countries.
Bloomberg- April 22, 2020. A team of researchers at Princeton University and the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, a public health advocacy group based in New Delhi and Washington, has identified India as a place where this strategy could be successful because its disproportionately young population would face less risk of hospitalization and death.
Corona outbreak: Here is how herd immunity could work for poor countries.
The Print- April 22, 2020. “We’re dealing with a trade-off against starvation, hunger, all this other stuff,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, the director of the CDDEP and a Princeton researcher. By allowing the coronavirus to spread in a controlled way, “undoubtedly there will be deaths, but it will be much smaller this way, and it opens us up for business by November,” he said.
A hard lockdown may reduce India’s coronavirus cases by 40%—only if social distancing continues.
Quartz India- April 21, 2020.Peak total coronavirus infections in India could be reduced by nearly 40% with hard lockdowns and continued social distancing measures, projects a research, published on April 20, by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), a public health research organisation based in New Delhi and Washington DC.
Why pooled PCR tests are our best bet | India Today Insight.
India Today- April 21, 2020. “Pooled testing and rapid testing are a quick way to detect prevalence of COVID in an area,” says Dr Jain. A study by Texas A&M University, the Washington-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) and Princeton last month stated the same.
India Braces for the Coronavirus.
Wallstreet Journal- April 17, 2020.
ICMR wants two COVID-19 testing labs in each city.
Bangalore Mirror- April 16, 2020. Researchers at Texas A&M University, Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), and Princeton University have assessed the feasibility of pooled RT PCR testing to vastly increase testing for covid-19.
India to stay locked down till May 3.
Hindustan Times- April 15, 2020. Ramanan Laxminarayan, director at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, and a senior research scholar at Princeton University, said that the government had clearly prioritised health. “This additional lockdown will push the epidemic curve out quite far. Our options in terms of treatment options may be quite different then. Our understanding of the disease is improving each day and our ability to respond would be better if we have more time to prepare.”
Densely Populated UP and Bihar Have Recorded Just About 6% of India’s Covid-19 Cases but Some Experts are Sceptical.
News 18- April 14, 2020. According to experts, the low number of coronavirus cases in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh is specious. The situation in the two states is unclear “probably due to low levels of testing and also a weak health system. States with the strongest health systems are more likely to detect cases quickly,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington.
Lockdown ‘slowed spread’.
The Telegraph- April 14, 2020. The work by the other research group at the US-based Centre for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policyhas suggested that a hard lockdown — reducing transmission by 44 per cent — would have pushed the peak of the infections in India from end-May (around May 27) to mid-June (around June 17).
Has India’s ‘airpocalypse’ put the poor more at risk from coronavirus?
Thomson Reuters Foundation;Deccan Herald– April 14, 2020. Respiratory problems can also be made worse by “co-morbidities” – or existing medical conditions – like hypertension and diabetes, said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Washington D.C.-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy. “The poor are more likely to have these co-morbidities and are exposed to higher levels of air pollution because they are more likely to be involved in physical labour that requires exertion that is hazardous when air quality is low,” he said.
COVID-19 hospitalisation demand in India could reach 18 lakh: CDDEP.
Financial Express- April 14, 2020. Against the availability of just over 7 lakh beds at government hospital facilities in India, the peak COVID-19 hospitalisation demand in the country could be as high as 18.7 lakh in a hard/moderate lockdown scenario, researchers associated with the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), Johns Hopkins University and Princeton University estimate.
Controlling COVID-19: To slay the Coronavirus-Goliath.
Financial Express- April 14, 2020. CDDEP-Princeton-Johns Hopkins researchers estimate a mammoth hospitalisation problem from COVID-19 in India. Pushing out the peak,i.e. delaying its occurrence through lockdowns, seems the only workable strategy till a vaccine or cure appears
Covid-19 endgame: How India could move from lockdowns to disease control.
Hindustan Times- April 13, 2020. By Ramanan Laxminarayan. A more feasible option is to achieve herd immunity- a concept which predicts that all of India would be protected as long as at least 65% of the population has experienced the infection, even without symptoms or in its mildest form.
Modi must extend coronavirus lockdown, bad idea to allow industry to restart.
Financial Express- April 13, 2020. The latest numbers from CDDEP are looking at 73 crore Indians getting infected by September and over one crore needing hospitalization; so it is difficult to understand how people believe livelihood won’t be affected if lives are not saved.
Andaman & Nicobar has started conducting pool tests for coivd-19 first in the country.
The Print- April 12, 2020. A study by researchers at the Texas A&M University, Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) and Princeton University in the US had assessed the feasibility of pooled real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing. The RT-PCR test is used to determine whether an individual has contracted Covid-19.
Coronavirus: India needs to proactively identify hotspots to stop millions from getting infected, says director of CDDEP.
CNBC TV 18- April 9, 2020. Professor Laxminarayan had earlier warned of a massive outbreak in India and raised red flags suggesting that India should prepare for a tsunami of cases. Reviewing his position on India’s situation he said, “Modelling is used for two purposes, it is used to project what will happen in the absence of any intervention and is used to tell you what would happen under various interventions.
Rational Expectations: Vital to get India’s health on track.
Financial Express- April 8, 2020. As Dr Laxminarayan of CDDEPshowed (bit.ly/34bty4i), even in a scenario where 1% of Indians got infected, with a much smaller share of these needing hospitalisation, and India were to get rid of all other patients, the country still simply doesn’t have the hospital beds to take care of them.
‘Tip of the iceberg’: Racing the clock to contain coronavirus in the world’s slums.
Thomson Reuters Foundation News- April 7, 2020. Poor living conditions, malnutrition and weakened immune systems make slum dwellers prone to contracting a more severe forms of the virus, said diseases expert Ramanan Laxminarayan. “They are also less likely to be able access treatment,” said Laxminarayan, director of the Washington D.C.-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP).
India not out of woods; needs to exponentially ramp up tests: Experts on COVID-19 pandemic.
The Economic Times;Live Mint; Financial Express; Business Insider; Outlook India; Business Standard;News 18; The Times of India;Eastern Mirror; Kashmir Images; Tribune India; Yahoo News; Devdiscourse; Metrovaartha; Rediff.com; One India; Overseas Updates; Trend Times; News 8 Plus– April 6, 2020. Experts said India is still not out of the woods and large-scale testing alone can make the overall picture clear. “There is a need to scale up testing exponentially if we want the lockdown to work,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, Director and Fellow at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy.
To curb further Covid 19 spread, move to pooled tests.
Financial Express- April 6, 2020. By Ramanan Laxminarayan and Nachiket Mor.
As Covid 19 spreads more broadly into the community, it is time for India’s strategy to move from one of individual testing, containment, and isolation, to a community approach.
Rapid antibody testing for hotspots first, says ICMR.
The Hindu- April 6, 2020. Here, we found that the use of a pooled testing strategy could reduce the time, cost, and resources required whilst identifying infected people in a population and estimating the infection rate. This would allow us to identify community clusters for targeted public health interventions,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, study author and CDDEPDirector and Senior Fellow, in a release issued by the group.
Coronavirus pandemic: ‘Pool testing’ for COVID-19 may benefit India as US study proves test feasibility, efficacy.
Money Control- April 6, 2020. At a time when countries like India are struggling to scale up testing, researchers at Texas A&M University, Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) and Princeton University have assessed the feasibility of pooled real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing to vastly increase testing for COVID-19.
Coronavirus: Faced with an unprecedented challenge, how is India faring?
The Economic Times- April 5, 2020. “The lockdown was timely. Any delay could have resulted in a spike of cases. Without doubt, the lockdown has been costly in terms of increasing hunger and rural distress but the benefits are significant in terms of a smaller projected epidemic peak,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Covid Crisis: If more than 1% Indians get infected, we will run out of hospital beds.
Financial Express- April 3, 2020. The latest modelling from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) estimates that nearly 48 lakh people will need hospitalisation across 30 states and Union Territories (excluding Madhya Pradesh) in a scenario where 5% of the country’s population is infected.
1.3 billion people. A 21-day lockdown. Can India curb the coronavirus?
Science Magazine- March 31, 2020. “India is probably the first large developing country and democracy into which this pandemic will arrive,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy. “Many of the advantages of the Chinese [state] control and of having the health systems of Europe or the U.S. are not available to India,” says Laxminarayan, who is advising the Indian government. “There will have to be a uniquely Indian response to COVID-19.”
What India Needs to Fight the Virus.
New York Times- March 27, 2020. By Ramanan Laxminarayan. I have been working with a group of researchers at multiple institutions in India, Europe and the United States to develop a large-scale computer model of the Indian population over many years. As we looked at the situation in India and evidence from other countries, the consequences of a catastrophic situation became more and more apparent.
What India needs to do to deal with COVID-19: CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan gives us a fast round-up.
Edex Live- March 23, 2020. Senior Research Scholar and Lecturer at Princeton Environmental Institute, Ramanan Laxminarayan’s research deals with integration of economics and epidemiology to address global health problems.
Coronavirus: India’s worst case scenario is two in ten people infected but most cases would be mild.
South China Morning Post- March 23, 2020. US-based expert Ramanan Laxminarayan originally said his model showed six in 10 of the population or 800 million people could get the Covid-19 illness but revised his projections in light of new measures being taken.
Covid-19: A response now will help mitigate impact | Opinion.
Hindustan Times- March 9, 2020. By Ramanan Laxminarayan. It is better to react now, than be unprepared later and risk millions of lives. Individuals must take responsibility.
Why is coronavirus spreading so fast.
Live Mint- February 9, 2020. “Population pressures mean that we are increasingly coming in contact with live animals, mostly for food. 72 billion animals (chicken, poultry, cattle and goats) are killed each year but they all have the potential to transmit new viruses to us,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director, the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP).
The age, sex, and symptoms of China’s coronavirus victims.
The Economic Times-January 25, 2020. “If this virus can be transmitted without causing fever, then it’s easier for the infection to travel globally because it can simply stay under the radar for a while,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, D.C.
Healthcare in India needs urgent injection of funds.
Media India Group- February 20, 2020.The majority of the world’s annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries where the mortality burden from treatable bacterial infections far exceeds the estimated annual 700,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections. “Lack of access to antibiotics kills more people currently than does antibiotic resistance, but we have not had a good handle on why these barriers are created,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director at CDDEP.
The age, sex, and symptoms of China’s coronavirus victims.
The Economic Times-January 25, 2020. “If this virus can be transmitted without causing fever, then it’s easier for the infection to travel globally because it can simply stay under the radar for a while,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, D.C.
Antibiotic Resistance: How to tackle AMR in Africa.
Down To Earth- January 21, 2020. A drug resistance index (DRI) — developed by researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), Washington and Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Georgia — was used to track global trends in effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in 41 countries in 2018. The result showed that high-income countries had the lowest DRIs and low-income and middle income countries had high DRIs.
Bacteria tolerant of one antibiotic more likely to develop resistance.
Deccan Herald- January 18, 2020. The study, although small, reveals a major threat to the way doctors currently think about combination antibiotics, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, DC, who was not involved in the work. “Our entire approach to antibiotics is going to have to be rethought,” says Laxminarayan, who is also a senior research scholar at Princeton University. “We can’t do this ‘give to everybody and kumbaya [approach],’ which is what we’re following now.”
Fight against antibiotic crisis stymied by lack of R&D spend.
SciDev- January 16, 2020- Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington DC, said that despite undoubted progress on AMR in terms of surveillance, awareness and action plans, “the age of privately funded antibiotic development is over unless the economics change radically”.
FIT WebQoof: Can giving antibiotics to chickens lead to cancer?
QuintFit- January 15, 2020. FIT reached out to Centre for Disease Dynamic, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), South Asia head, Jyoti Joshi for a comment. CDDEP has done extensive research into antibiotic resistance in poultry farming in India. Prof Joshi says research into antibiotic usage in poultry farming is at best patchy in India. But antibiotics have been used to bolster poultry production for decades by the industry.
Pharmalittle: Combining antibiotics may cause resistance.
STAT-January 10, 2020. “Our entire approach to antibiotics is going to have to be rethought,” said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in Washington, D.C., who was not involved in the work.
Bacteria “tolerant” of one antibiotic are more likely to develop resistance.
Scientific American- January 9, 2020. The study, although small, reveals a major threat to the way doctors currently think about combination antibiotics, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, DC, who was not involved in the work. “Our entire approach to antibiotics is going to have to be rethought,” says Laxminarayan, who is also a senior research scholar at Princeton University. “We can’t do this ‘give to everybody and kumbaya [approach],’ which is what we’re following now.”
Meet the innovators who want to kill the chicken nugget.
OneZero- January 8, 2020. Resistant bacteria spread everywhere, through the soil, “through the sewage, through the air [and] through workers,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, an expert in antibiotic resistance. “I don’t think we’re out of the woods.”
Indian neonates highly resistant to first-line antibiotics.
The Hindu, December 29, 2019. According to the Center For Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, nearly one million children die in the first four weeks of life every year in India. Of these, 190,000 deaths are caused by sepsis, a bacterial infection that overtakes the bloodstream. As many as 30% of sepsis deaths are attributed to antibiotics resistance.
Poor antibiotic stewardship blamed as India found to be superbug’s birthplace.
Chemistry World- December 23, 2019. The US Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy has developed a tool called the Drug Resistance Index (DRI), which maps out the efficacy of antibiotics for particular pathogens in a specific location. In a 2019 study, India was found to have the lowest DRI among 41 countries, indicating that the country has high levels of resistance to most commonly consumed antibiotics in the country. Other countries with extremely low DRI scores include Ecuador, Thailand and Venezuela. Wealthy countries such as Sweden, Canada and Denmark were found to be the best stewards of antibiotics.
On fireworks and finding ways to address drug resistance in low- and middle-income countries.
GARDP REVIVE Blog- December 17, 2020. I was recently asked if I thought behavior change around antibiotics was possible, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have historically had limited controls around the use of these drugs. My answer is a qualified ‘yes’. Behavior change is possible, provided it is evidence-based and with the understanding that meaningful transformation takes time. For a practical example of this, I often reflect on India’s experience with public attitudes towards fireworks during the Diwali festival. –Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Study finds dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in livestock.
Food Tank- November 2019. A recent study published in the journal Science finds antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in food animals or livestock raised for meat, has nearly tripled in low- and middle-income countries since 2000. Led by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), scientists examined the proportion of animals which showed rates of resistance higher than 50 percent: “a plausible cutoff at which one may no longer use the antibiotic as reliable treatment,” explains co-author and director of the CDDEP Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Decoded: The never ending hunt for a cure for the common cold.
The Quint Fit- November 28, 2019. Prof Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of Centre for Disease, Dynamics, Economics and Policy, and a research scholar from Princeton University, had this to say to people who pop antibiotics to cure a viral infection. “All drugs have something called a placebo effect. The placebo effect is basically that if we belief the drug will work, it does a lot for us. In fact the effectiveness of the power of mind in healing ourselves is larger than the drug. We run placebo run trials where one set of patients are given actual drugs and the other set a placebo or a sugar pill. Next time you have a cold or viral infection just pop a sugar pill.”
Climate change increasing threats from Vibrio bacteria: Study.
Down To Earth- November 14, 2019. Bacteria can be found everywhere — in air, water, soil and even food. As part of the natural process, a continuous transfer of chemical nutrients with the ecosystems, “bacteria are pushed to grow, encouraged to mutate and often undergo genetic changes that help them escape the very antibiotics that would have otherwise killed them,” said Jyothi Joshi, Head-South Asia for Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy.
As deadly ‘superbugs’ outsmart antibiotics, a Penn scientist uses artificial intelligence to design new ones.
The Philadelphia Inquirer-November 2, 2019. Big drug companies steer clear of developing new antibiotics largely because the drugs are not moneymakers, said Eili Klein, a senior fellow at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, a think tank with offices in Washington and New Delhi. By nature, the drugs are designed to be used for the short term, some of them only as a last resort.
Studies show vaccines have unexpected benefits — better cognition, school grades and child growth.
Research Matters-October 22, 2019.A recent set of studies by a team of international researchers, led by those at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), Washington DC and New Delhi, have shown that vaccines can have other unintentional positive effects. They show that measles and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine can have long term cognitive, health and schooling benefits in children from countries like India, Vietnam and Ethiopia. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the studies.
Antibiotic resistance in livestock: what are the risks?
Consumer & Society- October 14, 2019. Researcher Ramanan Laxminarayan noted: “This paper is the first to track antibiotic resistance in animals globally and it finds that resistance has gone up dramatically over the last 18 years. We certainly do want higher-protein diets for many people, but if this comes at the cost of failing antibiotics, then we need to evaluate our priorities.”
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN FARMED ANIMALS NEARLY TRIPLED SINCE 2000.
Veg News- October 11, 2019. “This paper is the first to track antibiotic resistance in animals globally and it finds that resistance has gone up dramatically during the past 18 years,” report co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan said. “We certainly do want higher-protein diets for many people, but if this comes at the cost of failing antibiotics, then we need to evaluate our priorities.”
Rising antibiotic resistance is giving doctors fewer treatment options.
NJTV News- October 11, 2019. Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan told an audience at the Princeton Global Health Program that the more antibiotics are used to treat infections, the more bacteria evolve and learn to respond to — or resist — drugs.
With increased access to antibiotics in some South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa countries, antibiotic resistance deaths are soaring because drugs are being used instead of water, sanitation and hygiene to reduce infections.
Drug resistance in farm animals threatens human health in India.
The Wire-October 10, 2019. Clearly, the highest levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are currently found in China and India, said study author Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), Washington and senior research scholar at Princeton University. Mapping resistance trends in food animals across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the researchers drew attention to antibiotic overuse and misuse in animals (animals consume three times as many antibiotics as humans) in the wake of increasing meat consumption.
Should the Food Industry Be Concerned by the Sharp Rise in Antibiotic Resistance in Food Animals?
Technology Networks- October 10, 2019. “This paper is the first to track antibiotic resistance in animals globally and it finds that resistance has gone up dramatically during the past 18 years,” said co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan.“We certainly do want higher-protein diets for many people, but if this comes at the cost of failing antibiotics, then we need to evaluate our priorities,” Laxminarayan said.
Antibiotic resistance has surged in livestock in the last two decades.
Consumer Affairs- October 10, 2019. “This paper is the first to track antibiotic resistance in animals globally and it finds that resistance has gone up dramatically over the last 18 years,” said researcher Ramanan Laxminarayan. “We certainly do want higher-protein diets for many people, but if this comes at the cost of failing antibiotics, then we need to evaluate our priorities.”
Unmeasured burden: Drug-resistance in farm animals threatens human health in India.
Mongabay- October 9, 2019. Clearly, the highest levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are currently found in China and India, said study author Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), Washington and senior research scholar at Princeton University.
India and China top hot spots of antimicrobial resistance in animals.
SciDev- September 24, 2019. Ramanan Laxminarayan, study co-author and founder-director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, Washington, told SciDev.Net: “Immediate actions are required in China and India to mitigate the impact of AMR on both their own animals and citizens, and as part of the wider global community.”
U.S. pushes global effort to fight antibiotic resistance at UN meeting.
Axios- September 24, 2019. Meanwhile, a study out last week in Science developed a geospatial model using data from 901 point-prevalence surveys around the world between 2000 and 2018 examining rates of antibiotic resistance in animals and food products in E. coli, Campylobacter spp., non-typhoidal Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus. Study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan says they found there was a triple increase in antibiotic resistance risk in food animals from 2000–2018, particularly in low or middle-income countries like India, China and Brazil. Many of these countries have just recently started monitoring and raising awareness of the problem, but farmers tend to overprescribe antibiotics to promote animal growth, causing AMR. “Do we really want to enable [the] factory farming of animals at the cost of animal and human health?” Laxminarayan asks.
Antimicrobial resistance in animals is getting worse in developing countries.
Modern Farmer- September 22, 2019. “This study shows a remarkable increase in resistance,” Ramanan Laxminarayan, one of the study’s authors and the director for the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, tells Modern Farmer. “We saw almost a three-fold increase in AMR in poultry, cattle, and pigs over that time indicating that, across the world, antimicrobial resistance is going up dramatically in animals.”
Alarm as antimicrobial resistance surges among chickens, pigs and cattle
Nature- September 20, 2019. “For the first time, we have some evidence that antibiotic resistance [in farm animals] is rising, and is rising fast in low- and middle-income countries,” says Thomas Van Boeckel, an epidemiologist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich who co-authored the analysis. He says that governments should take action against the growing threat and coordinate their efforts on a global scale.
Antibiotic resistance in farm animals tied to global hot spots.
CIDRAP-September 20, 2019. “When we talk about antibiotic resistance in low- and middle-income countries, there is a lot of speculation, and a lot of expert opinion,” said Van Boeckel, a professor at the Swiss Federal Institute for Technology and a visiting scholar with the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy. “We tend to prefer data over that.”
Farm Animals Are the Next Big Antibiotic Resistance Threat.
Wired- September 19, 2019. “Everyone talks about antibiotic resistance in humans, but no one has been talking about antibiotic resistance in animals,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, the director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, DC, and the paper’s senior author. “Yet there are far more animals than humans on the planet, and they are essential for livelihoods across the developing world. If we are not able to treat sick animals, that will have a huge impact on global poverty.”
Antibiotic resistance in food-animals growing.
The Times of India- September 19, 2019.The other hotspots include China, Pakistan, Vietnam, Turkey, Brazil and South Africa, says a review study jointly done by Princeton University and Delhi-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy and published in Science journal on Thursday night.
Spike in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Threatening Global Meat Supply.
Courthouse News Service-September 19, 2019. In their study published in the journal Science, the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policies (CDDEP) warns of a rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. When animals are overexposed to antibiotics, they can develop antibiotic-resistant infections which can then be passed to humans.
Doctor Driven Innovation: How MedTech players are transforming the Indian healthcare sector.
Entrepreneur India- September 6, 2019. According to a recent study by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) in the US there are at least 600,000 doctor shortage in India, especially in rural India. Along with this problem, archaic infrastructure and limited resources are among the major factors compromising the quality of healthcare in India.
Drug company representatives are giving ‘quack’ doctors fridges and televisions to sell antibiotics.
Independent- August 20, 2019. Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), said: “When you consider that there are five times the number of rural medical practitioners in India as there are trained medical doctors, it should come as no surprise that the majority of antibiotics reach patients through this channel. It is no surprise that pharma companies push antibiotics through [them]. “There is a need to balance access to antibiotics, which these practitioners provide, and also prevent overuse and inappropriate use and therein lies the challenge.”
Drug company reps give quack doctors fridges and televisions to sell antibiotics.
The Bureau Investigates- August 19, 2019. Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), said: “When you consider that there are five times the number of rural medical practitioners in India as there are trained medical doctors, it should come as no surprise that the majority of antibiotics reach patients through this channel. It is no surprise that pharma companies push antibiotics through [them].
Pneumococcal conjugate is probably one of the most cost-effective vaccines available: Ramanan Laxminarayan.
ETHealthworld.com- August 6, 2019. Shahid Akhter, editor, ETHealthworld spoke to Ramanan Laxminarayan, Senior research scholar at Princeton University to know more about challenges and the way forward in immunisation programme.
Health ministry bans use of antibiotic colistin for animal food industry.
The Logical Indian-July 23, 2019. “If you go to the average poultry farm in Punjab you see these are all lacking: the nutrition is not there, hygiene is awful. So they are using the antibiotics as a substitute of keeping the animals alive”, according to Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy.
Health ministry has banned animal food industry from using antibiotic Colistin: What it means for you.
Times Now News- July 23, 2019. Earlier, a 2017 study published in Environmental Health Perspectives found high levels of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in chickens raised for both meat and eggs on farms in India, raising serious health concerns. The study led by researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) suggested that the findings have serious implications, not only for India but globally. Earlier studies done by CDDEP studies have projected that the consumption of antibiotics through animal food sources will rise globally by 67 percent by 2030, including more than a tripling of use in India.
Govt bans use of Colistin in animal feed and fishing.
Deccan Herald- July 21,2019. “Overuse of antibiotics in animal farms endangers us all as it multiplies drug resistance in the environment,” lead author of the study Ramanan Laxminarayan, who heads the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in the Washington DC had stated, explaining the significance of the study.
Rising population can increase emergence of infectious diseases: study.
Down to Earth- July 12, 2019. A similar study in 2017 by non-profit Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy had predicted that the use of antibiotics will increase by 82 percent in India by 2030. Antibiotic powders and tablets are fed to animals to increase livestock production and nutritional level.
Measles vaccine in early childhood associated with long term health and cognitive benefits.
MedicalResearch.com- June 24, 2019. Arindam Nandi, CDDEP: During a time where vaccine hesitancy and mistrust in vaccines are high, readers should be reminded that beyond saving lives, vaccines are also associated with improved cognitive ability, education and physical stature- benefits that extend beyond early childhood. It is important to counter misinformation regarding vaccines with scientifically backed evidence on the immediate health as well as long-term benefits of vaccines. Near universal coverage of the measles vaccine (often considered to be around 95%) among eligible population is important for protecting own health and that of those who may not have access to the vaccine (e.g., low-income communities) or are ineligible for it (e.g., newborn children).
Hib vaccine is linked to better health in children in India: Study.
The Quint Fit- June 13, 2019. Co-author and CDDEP director, Ramanan Laxminarayan said, “Hib vaccination is a critical component of the pentavalent vaccine, which was introduced in 2011. Although we tend to focus on short term consequences of immunization, this study shows that the effect of Hib vaccination on schooling and cognitive development can be significant. Denying children vaccines is effectively denying them access to these benefits that persist through their lives.”
Governance Now- June 3, 2019. “A CDDEP report says the true extent of the spread of AMR from meat animals in India hasn’t been scoped, but mentions a telling fact: only one company produces benzathine penicillin for human use, whereas six make it for veterinary use. ‘It’s clear,’ says Dr. Isabel Frost, ‘that the use of antibiotics in animal rearing is contributing to the emergence and spread of highly resistant disease-causing bacteria.'”
Tourists are spreading superbugs across international borders, report warns.
The Telegraph- May 30, 2019. “The report, published by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), found that tourists are contributing to the spread of AMR across international borders – with as many as 88 percent of unwell tourists returning to the UK from India infected with drug resistant bacteria.”
The politics of antibiotics- Interview with Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Books & Ideas- May 30, 2019. “The growing resistance to antibiotics potentially threatens the future of mankind. Ramanan Laxminarayan suggests that this major political challenge requires as much international cooperation as the fight against global warming does.”
New antibiotics are urgently needed, but economics stand in the way.
MedCity News- May 21, 2019. “There needs to be a more rational reimbursement model with a willingness to pay more in cases when a patient is going to die without an antibiotic.” –CDDEP director Ramanan Laxminarayan on antibiotic reimbursement.
India & Candida Auris: The deadly infection breeding in hospitals.
The Quint Fit-May 20, 2019. “FIT spoke to three experts, Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) in Washington, D.C., Dr. Isabel Frost, fellow at CDDEP, and Dr Sumit Ray, Chairperson, Critical Care Medicine, to understand the peculiar problem that it creates for a country like India; where the healthcare infrastructure is battling to even recognise AMR as a real threat.”
Healthcare is still unaffordable.
Decan Hearald- May 6, 2019. “A recent report by the US-based Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) has made a shocking revelation. Terminally ill patients suffering from treatable diseases in India have no access to life saving drugs or even to doctors who know how to administer them. “Lack of access to antibiotics kills more people currently than do antibiotic resistance,” says director Ramanan Laxminarayan.”
1 million species face extinction: how it impacts human health.
The Quint Fit- May 5, 2019. “Speaking to FIT, Prof Ramanan Laxminarayan of Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) had said: We forget that we are all interlinked. Most diseases first emerge in animals. It is only after they’ve gone through them that they travel to humans. Ebola first emerged in Gorillas. Unless we learn from our mistakes, we stop destroying their habitat, these viruses will keep emerging.”
How to save $45 billion on health care costs each year.
Scientific American- May 3, 2019. “Each time an antibiotic is misused and a new strain of bacteria evolves with an immunity to that antibiotic, scientists must develop a different antibiotic to treat the new infection caused by the new bacteria. Then they must distribute the newly developed antibiotic to hospitals, by which time patients could have gotten sick and died. It’s a race to evolve, essentially. A race against nature. And we’re going to lose. ‘This is clearly not a game that can be sustained, or one that we can win by simply innovating to stay ahead,’ said Laxminarayan. ‘We’ve got to slow the pace of coevolution down.’”
Antibiotic resistance is now as big a threat as climate change.
The Quint Fit- April 29, 2019. “As the recent report by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy highlights, the majority of the world’s annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in LMICs, where the mortality burden from treatable bacterial infections far exceeds the estimated annual 700,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections.”
One-third of overseas travelers might come back with drug resistant bacteria, research shows, but here’s why you shouldn’t worry.
Bustle- April 22, 2019. “We took antibiotics for granted. We thought that we could use them like sugar pills, that they were safe and that resistance was just something that biologists worried about that you’d never actually see in real life,’ Ramanan Laxminarayan, an economist and a senior research scholar at Princeton University, told 60 Minutes.”
India doctor shortage drives rise in superbugs, report warns.
The Telegraph- April 23, 2019. “The research, published by the Centre For Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) shows there is just one doctor for every 10,189 people in the country, nowhere near the World Health Organization’s recommendation of one doctor per 1,000 inhabitants. In order to satisfy its public health requirements, India needs to hire a further 600,000 doctors, the report says. ‘Many of the doctors and nurses trained in India do not stay here,’ said Dr. Isabel Frost, a fellow at CDDEP and one of the authors of the report.
Could antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” become a bigger killer than cancer?
60 Minutes- April 21, 2019. “Ramanan Laxminarayan is an economist and a senior research scholar at Princeton University. He’s been tracking the rise of superbugs for nearly 20 years. He says what happened to Ricci was more than just bad luck, it was the result of our misuse of antibiotics. Ramanan Laxminarayan: ‘We took antibiotics for granted. We thought that we could use them like sugar pills, that they were safe and that resistance was just something that biologists worried about that you’d never actually see in real life.’”
Drug-resistant fungi are a threat to modern medicine.
Hindustan Times- April 19, 2019. “To prevent the outbreak of deadly infections such as Candida auris, hospital infection control must be taken seriously. Unlike other fungi that rarely transmit between humans, C. auris can be passed from patient to patient in a hospital. This is because of its unusual ability to last for long periods of time on hospital surfaces, such as bed rails and door handles.”
New metric aims to simplify how global resistance is measured.
CIDRAP- April 18, 2019. “A new method for measuring and tracking antibiotic resistance and comparing the effectiveness of antibiotics by country shows a clear distinction between high- and low-income countries. In a study published in BMJ Global Health, researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) calculated the Drug Resistance Index (DRI)—which combines measurements of antibiotic consumption and resistance across several disease-causing pathogens—for 41 countries. The results showed that use and resistance rates were highly variable across countries but that DRIs were generally correlated with income levels, with high-income countries such as Sweden, Canada, and Norway having the lowest DRIs and India, Thailand, and Ecuador the highest.”
Report highlights lack of access to antibiotics.
CIDRAP- April 17, 2019. “Excessive, inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered to be the most significant driver of antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, global efforts have been launched to promote antibiotic stewardship and the reduction of unnecessary use of these life-saving drugs. But a new report from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) suggests limited access to antibiotics in many parts of the world, particularly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), is an overlooked and under-appreciated problem. The report argues that a combination of factors—from weak, underfunded health systems to unreliable supply chains and high out-of-pocket costs—create barriers to access that prevent millions of people from receiving the antibiotics they need.”
Six reasons why antibiotics access remains a challenge in Uganda.
Down to Earth- April 17, 2019. “While antibiotic resistance has become a major health risk in the world today, over 5.7 million people die every year due to lack of access to antibiotics. A recent report highlights how a majority of these avoidable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Focusing on Uganda, the report highlights six distinct reasons why low-income countries are unable to avoid these deaths.”
Limited access to antibiotics a major problem for many countries around the world.
Consumer Affairs- April 16, 2019. “While many researchers have explored how overusing antibiotics can be dangerous, a new study looked at the ways a lack of supplies can also be detrimental. According to researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policy, countries that have limited access to antibiotics are seeing people die from very treatable diseases and infections.”
CDDEP researchers label lack of antibiotics access major health hurdle worldwide.
Homeland Preparedness News- April 15, 2019. “A recent report from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) lays out present problems in global access to antibiotics.”
India facing shortage of 600,000 doctors, 2 million nurses: study.
Livemint- April 14, 2019. “Even when antibiotics are available, patients are often unable to afford them. High out-of-pocket medical costs to the patient are compounded by limited government spending for health services, according to the report by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) in the US. In India, 65% of health expenditure is out-of-pocket, and such expenditures push some 57 million people into poverty each year.”
FT Health: The struggle for women’s rights.
Financial Times Health- April 12, 2019. “Another downside to the overuse of antibiotics is that many patients do not get the drugs they need. Most of the world’s annual 5.7m antibiotic-treatable deaths are in poorer countries. Government and industry need to work together to develop new antimicrobials. A new paper argues for economic incentives to encourage development, decoupling profits from volumes sold. (CDDEP, Stat, Science)”
India’s Medical Professional Shortage.
YouTube/ Bloomberg Quint- April 15, 2019. “India has shortage of an estimated 6,00,000 doctors and 2 million nurses, according to a study by the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy.”
Government subsidies could be key to containing hospital-born infections.
Princeton University- April 3, 2019. “Co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan, a senior research scholar at the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) who studies antibiotic resistance, said that incentivizing infection control would reduce infections within a given region by motivating individual hospitals to strengthen their own preventive measures. Those single measures would coalesce into lower infection rates for the area as a whole.”
Matching subsidies for infection control effective at lowering HAI levels.
Beckers Hopsital Review- March 12, 2019. “Researchers from Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, D.C., and Princeton (N.J.) University argue that since patients can carry infections from one facility to another, infection control practices at one healthcare facility can affect other facilities. Thus, there is a need for regional infection control strategy.”
India’s integrated child development program increases educational attainment.
Phys.org- February 25, 2019. “In a new study funded by Grand Challenges Canada through the Saving Brains project, researchers at CDDEP and the University of Pennsylvania evaluated the long-term impact of ICDS on schooling attainment of adolescents and adults in India.”
‘Make no mistake, a flu pandemic is inevitable’: Economist urges governments to stockpile antibiotics ready for an outbreak as they will fight deadly secondary bacteria infections.
Daily mail- February 15, 2019. “Although antibiotics are ineffective against the viruses that cause flu, Ramanan Laxminarayan warns it is the secondary bacterial infections – such as pneumonia – that are most deadly.”
Study estimates value of investing in antibiotic to reduce repercussion in influenza pandemic.
News Medical- February 13, 2019. “In a new study published in the journal Health Economics, researchers at CDDEP, the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, and Wageningen University in the Netherlands developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.”
Are our milk and poultry products safe for consumption?
Kashmir Reader- January 12, 2019. “According to Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, a noted poultry expert, who has been the director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington DC and New Delhi. 12 out of the 18 poultry farms ie (67% farms) in India reported the use of antimicrobials as growth boosters. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, antibiotics commonly used to treat cholera, malaria, respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans, were the most commonly used of these.”
Dr. Eili Klein discusses medical research and the threat of ‘superbugs’.
CGTN America- January 4, 2019
Expert spotlight: 5 questions with Ramanan Laxminarayan.
Antibiotic Resistance Action Center- December 12, 2018. “In late March, CDDEP and its colleagues published a new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), Global increase and geographic convergence in antibiotic consumption between 2000 and 2015, that highlights how global consumption of antibiotics is skyrocketing, further driving antibiotic resistance. We interviewed Dr. Laxminarayan to get his take on their latest report and what the world can do to tackle antibiotic resistance.”
Antibiotic resistance: 5 simple tips to help prevent or reduce the spread of drug-resistant infections.
Times Now News- November 19, 2018. “A new report by researchers at the Centre for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy (CDDEP) warned that antibiotic-resistant infections are growing at an alarming rate in India, killing over 58,000 children every year.”
Deadly superbugs kill more Indians than people from any other country, finds study.
India Times- November 18, 2018. According to the study, conducted by researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) among others, the overall mortality rate due to drug-resistant bacteria in India was 13% in 2015.
Effective antibiotic therapies declining.
Times of India- November 17, 2018. Ramanan Laxminarayan, founder and director of CDDEP in Washington DC, said infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are associated with higher mortality rates compared to those caused by Gram-positive bacteria, with rates of 17.7 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively.
Study shows declining efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent SSIs following colorectal surgery.
Healio, Infectious Disease News- November 15, 2018. “There has been concern that drug resistance would make surgeries and transplants difficult to perform because of the greater risk of untreatable, drug-resistant infections,” Ramanan Laxminarayan, PhD, director and founder of the Center for Disease, Dynamics, Economics & Policy and senior research scholar at Princeton University, told Infectious Disease News.”
Antibiotic awareness week- Talk vs. action?
American Council on Science and Health- November 12, 2018. “In the NAS workshop report, Ramanan Laxminarayan was quoted. He “also pointed out that the way to think about AMR’s consequences on human health needs to go beyond only focusing on the death tolls from drug-resistant pathogens. He highlighted that AMR deeply affects care-seeking behaviors. He described a scenario in which an elderly patient might forgo a hip replacement surgery because of the higher associated risk of a postoperative infection and has to live with a bad hip for several more years. He reiterated that behavioral adaptations in response to not having access to effective antibiotics or any antibiotics at all are likely to be significant, and he urged the audience to think about these often-overlooked ramifications.”
Geographic distribution of antibiotics after market introduction.
European Pharmaceutical Review-October 17, 2018. “According to a new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) with colleagues at the University of Oslo, and other organizations, between 1999 and 2014, only 25 new antibiotics representing nine different antibiotic classes entered the global market.” “According to Ramanan Laxminarayan, CDDEP’s Director, “prior to this study, little was known about the geographic distribution and availability of antibiotics following market introduction. We found that many new antibiotics fail to go beyond a few countries and are therefore not available in many countries where the need is greatest.”’
Microbiology culture market estimated to attain revenues worth US $7.5 bn by 2023.
Industry Research News- September 25, 2018. “According to the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), a U.S.-based independent research body, the demand for antibiotics will soar to 105.600 tons by 2030, to cater to the healthcare needs of about 8.5 bn people. From infection control to better agricultural productivity to improving industrial processes, the demand for antibiotics is soaring in a myriad of application areas.”
How Swachh Bharat can enhance nutrition, immunity of children.
Hindustan Times- September 25, 2018. “In India, antibiotics overuse is often because it is used to treat diarrhea and upper respiratory tract infections, both of which can be reduced by improving sanitation, providing clean water, adopting personal hygiene and getting vaccinated,” said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan from the Princeton Environmental Institute.”
Antimicrobial resistance can’t be tackled by just reducing antibiotics consumption.
Great Lakes Ledger- September 9, 2018. “The research, carried out by researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), demonstrated that improved governance and infrastructure are strongly linked to lower levels of AMR (Antimicrobial Resistance).”
How countries can curb antibiotic resistance.
The Economic Times- September 9, 2018. “The study, led by researchers from the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), here, showed that better infrastructure and better governance were significantly associated with lower measures of antimicrobial resistance.”
Not just antibiotic abuse, corruption, low health spend also fuel superbugs.
Hindustan Times- September 5, 2018. ‘Lowering of antibiotic consumption is not sufficient because the spread of resistant strains and resistance genes are the dominant contributing factor. Providing sanitation, clean water and good governance, increasing public health expenditure and better regulating the private health sector are all necessary to reduce antimicrobial resistance,’ said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan.
FDA issues warning on common antibiotic class.
Medi Bulletin- August 30, 2018. “According to a study published by Ramanan Laxminarayan et al. titled Antibiotic Resistance in India: Drivers and Opportunities for Action, fluoroquinolones consumption is high and increasing in India. In 2010, India was the world’s largest consumer of antibiotics for human health. The study also found resistance to fluoroquinolones among invasive Salmonella typhi isolates in India increased from 8% in 2008 to 28% in 2014. Salmonella typhi is the causative organism for typhoid.”
India is rolling out a health-care plan for half a billion people. But are there enough doctors?
The Washington Post- August 14, 2018. The private sector expects huge profits when investing in health care, said Ramanan Laxminarayan, director at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, and the government’s budget constraints simply won’t be able to match their expectations. “The private sector wants more money than the government wants to spend,” he said.
Just Rs 147 to help protect a kid from diseases in India.
Hindustan Times- August 7, 2018. “‘There’s been a four-fold increase in the immunization budget over the last four years, yet no proper economic costing study has been done. This study is significant because with the addition of more life-saving vaccines, as it should happen, the budget will go up further,’ said study co-author Ramanan Laxminarayan from Princeton University.”
The startups waging war against superbugs.
The Spokesman-Review- July 1, 2018. “‘The science is as good as anywhere else,’ said Ramanan Laxminarayan, a professor at Princeton University and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, based in Washington and New Delhi. ‘On a per-dollar basis, I think the chance of a new antibiotic discovery is as great or higher in India as anywhere.’”
Drug resistance takes devastating toll on families in India.
National Post- June 26, 2018. “Carbapenem resistance was unheard of as recently as the late 1990s. It has now become widespread in South Asia, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy and a leading expert.”
Call to widen pneumonia vaccine cover.
The Telegraph India- June 14, 2018. “A study published last month by the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) had estimated that the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines would cost $240 million (Rs 1,620 crore), more than double the Rs 700 crore India spent on immunization in 2014-15.”
‘Why not take a risk?’ attitude is impeding efforts to stem rise in antibiotic-resistant infections.
Minnpost- June 11, 2018. “The problem is that patients, but more surprisingly clinicians, are not fully recognizing the potential harms from antibiotic use,” said Eili Klein, one of the study’s authors and a mathematical ecologist and epidemiologist at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), in a released statement. “Despite the fact that approximately 20% of patients can get some sort of side effect, this does not seem to be as important a factor in decision-making as one would expect.”
Perception that antibiotics are harmless is widespread.
EuerkAlert- May 31, 2018. “The problem is that patients, but more surprisingly clinicians, are not fully recognizing the potential harms from antibiotic use”, said Dr. Klein of CDDEP. “Despite the fact that approximately 20% of patients can get some sort of side effect, this does not seem to be as important a factor in decision-making as one would expect.”
Climate change: a possible cause behind the Nipah outbreak.
The Quint- May 23, 2018. ‘We forget that we are all interlinked. Most diseases first emerge in animals. It is only after they’ve gone through them that they travel to humans. Ebola first emerged in Gorillas. Unless we learn from our mistakes, we stop destroying their habitat these viruses will keep emerging.’ -Prof Ramanan Laxminarayan, CDDEP.
The catch-22 of mass-prescribing antibiotics.
Wired- May 10, 2018. “I am not saying this kind of use has no place at all; it may have a role for some populations and for some period of time,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, the founder of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy and a prominent researcher into developing-world antibiotic policy. “But we have to also be working on water, sanitation, nutrition. This can be a stopgap, but it cannot be an endless strategy for saving children’s lives.”
Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in children across the US: After 2008, a downward trend reported.
Outbreak News Today- May 3, 2018. “In the first national study of the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in children across the US,researchers from Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, & Policy (CDDEP) in Washington, DC and Rush University in Chicago, IL examined national and regional trends of antibiotic resistance in clinical specimens over a 13-year period.”
Fresh food samples found to be resistant to antibiotics: new study reveals.
Hungry Forever- April 27, 2018. “After studies conducted by Indian researchers from the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) found a high level of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in chicken, it has recently been found that fresh food samples contain bacteria that is resistant to even the most powerful antibiotic.”
Giving at-risk children pre-emptive antibiotics reduces deaths.
International Journal of Science- April 25, 2018. ‘This antibiotics strategy comes at a cost, says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in Washington DC. If resistance develops against azithromycin, diseases treated by the drug, including gonorrhea, would become harder to combat.’
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a massive problem.
Longevity Live- April 20, 2018. “The study, which analyzed human antibiotic consumption in 76 countries, is the most comprehensive assessment of global trends to date. Researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), Princeton University, ETH Zurich and the University of Antwerp conducted the study, which found that antibiotic consumption rates increased worldwide from 11.3 to 15.7 defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day between 2000 and 2015.”
Antibiotics use in India has risen by 65% in the last 15 years.
Free Press Journal- April 8, 2018. “Worryingly, use of third-generation antibiotics such as cephalosporins and linezolid’s used to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased dramatically in India since 2000, reports the study, done by CDDEP, Princeton University, ETH Zurich and the University of Antwerp.”
Global antibiotic use rises, fueled by economic growth.
Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy- March 26, 2018. “If things continue at the same rate they’re going, without any sort of deviation, things are just going to get worse,” study co-author Eili Klein, PhD, a professor in the department of emergency medicine at Johns Hopkins University and fellow at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), told CIDRAP News.
Antibiotic shortage alert on superbugs.
The Telegraph India- February 8, 2018. “The researchers at the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), a Washington DC and New Delhi-based health think tank, have also predicted that over three-fourths of E. coli will be 3GC resistant and all of K pneumonia will be carbapenem-resistant by 2030.”